After being freed from their bondage in Egypt by Moses, the Israelites where led out into the desert. The Israelites arrived at Mt. Sinai, where the presence of God was manifest before them. Moses went up on the mountain to receive the Law of God. However, after he went up the first time, God told him to go back down to the people. Moses ascended a second time, and this time, while he was away, the people pressured Aaron to make a golden calf, so they could worship it.
Moses came down from the mountain, and broke the stone tablets. The Levites stepped forward and killed the idolaters, per the command of Moses. However, God was angry with the Israelites. Moses, therefor put up the Tabernacle of Meeting outside the camp of the Israelites, on the outskirts.
While Moses was on the mount, he received instructions for building the Ark of the Covenant. The Ark would be constructed later, while they were still in the desert. The Ark contained the very presence of God, and was the most holy in all of Israel. The Ark would play vital roles in the future of Israel.
After Christianity was legalized by Constantine, the Church was in a broad new world. Constantine was putting the Church on course to posses the Roman Empire. The great Saint, Athanasius, arose at this time. He defended the Faith against the heresy of Arianism. St. Athanasius was sent back and forth, in and out of exile multiple times by Arian Roman Emperors. Pope Liberius was also sent into exile, and while he was there, it is speculated that he was greatly pressured to sign a document in favor of the Arian heresy, and against St. Athanasius (who Pope Liberius supported and admired).
Emperor Julian took the throne after the exile of Pope Liberius. He is knows as ‘Julian the Apostate’ because, for a two year period, (and while the Faith was in exile), he returned the Roman Empire to the worship of pagan worship. He exiled St. Athanasius again.
St. Athanasius came back from his 4th exile and immediately convened a council to denounce Arianism and uphold the True, Nicene Faith. It wasn’t long before St. Athanasius was exiled again, his 5th exile. This time, however, he was just exiled to the outskirts of the city of Alexandria.
About 70 years later, the Church would define the dogma of “Theotokos” which means God-bearer. This proclaimed that Our Lady (the new Ark) was the Mother of God, and bore God within her. Doctrines of Our Lady would be proclaimed throughout the future of the Church, and this doctrine served as the foundation for them. Our Lady is the most holy Virgin, pure and immaculate.